Hypnagogia: Half Awake, Half Asleep

Hypnagogia is the experience you have when you are either falling asleep (but not quite asleep) or waking up (but not quite awake). Other terms for it include: “visions of half-sleep”, “the borderland of sleep”, “half-dream state” and “dreamlets”. The hypnagogic state can be characterised by many sensory experiences. These experiences can range from the subtle and vague, to the downright intense and hallucinatory. It can include visions: seeing colours, shapes, faces, landscapes and other three-dimensional imagery. Unlike dreams, however, these sights have no narrative to them; that is, they do not tell a meaningful story. I experience this all the time and it usually consists of interacting with people, but with no context to it. A lot of the time, the visual experience is nightmarish, but because I am not in a deep sleep I can open my eyes and I am fully awake.

People who are involved in some activity before they fall asleep report experiencing this activity in the hypnagogic state. It is most common among people who engage in a really repetitive activity before going to bed later that night. It happens among people who play a lot of video games, new waiters and waitresses, chess players, telemarketers, and those who spend all day doing a particular activity (e.g. rock climbing, skiing, swimming). In many instances, there can be tactile hallucinations, where the person feels a part of the experience they were involved with in the day – e.g. the rock climber can feel the rockface, the person skiing can feel the snow, and the swimmer can feel the water. I have experienced this myself. One night after spending hours of telemarketing, I went to sleep, and although I wasn't fully asleep it felt like I was back at work, taking countless calls. Definitely not an enjoyable experience.

Another aspect of the hypnagogic state is hearing sounds. Just like the visual aspect, the auditory aspect can range from slight sounds to realistic, loud noises. Common sounds heard are one's name being called out and a loud noise or bang going off in one's head. I've experienced both and it can be pretty scary. It wakes me up immediately. The loud noise in one's head has been compared to an explosion, roar, gunshot, door slamming, and loud voices or screams. The worst is when it's a scream, since it not only shocks you, but it's especially weird to have someone else's voice in your head. This aspect of the hypnagogic state has been called “exploding head syndrome” and it can be accompanied by anxiety and an elevated heart rate. The cause of it is unknown, but some doctors say it can be associated with fatigue and stress. In the past I have had repeated cases of it, which made me fearful of going to sleep.

Our thought processes can also be affected. Thought processes at the edge of sleep are completely different from the thought processes we have when we are fully awake. Hypnagogic thinking is said to be characterised by more openness, illogic, nonsense, heightened suggestibility (readiness to believe something), and a more fluid association of ideas (connecting ideas in a more free-flow and unique way). Personally, I usually experience this when I've been falling asleep watching a documentary or when I've been writing or reading about a difficult subject before going to sleep. In the hypnagogic state I am either writing about the subject or thinking about it in a radically different way. During the experience, it seems as if I am making genuine progress with a problem, without being able to arrive at a solution. It's like wrestling with hundreds of ideas and being stuck in a kind of loop at the same time.

However, many famous people have been able to use the hypnagogic state in order to solve a problem. The scientist, August Kekule, for example, realised that the structure of benzene was a closed ring while half asleep, and seeing molecules turning into snakes, while one snake put its tail in its mouth to create a ring shape. Many other famous people have said that hypnagogia was able to enhance their creativity, including Beethoven, Wagner, Dali, William Blake, Carl Jung, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Edison, Tesla, Newton, and many more.

References to hypnagogia go as far back as Aristotle, who spoke of the “affections we experience when sinking into slumber”. In the third century AD, the philosopher Iamblichus writes about “voices” and “bright and tranquil light” that came to him in the “condition between sleeping and waking”. He thought that these experiences were religious in nature and sent by God. In 1600 the astrologer Simon Forman recounted apocalyptic visions of “mountains and hills” which came rolling towards him at the point of sleep. And Edgar Allan Poe wrote about the “fancies” that he experienced “only when I am on the brink of sleep...”

Some believe that hypnagogic states, much like dreams, are not full of meaningless junk and random images and noises. Instead, hypnagogia can be imbued with structure and meaning, and therefore be interpreted in a way to gain an understanding of the unconscious mind. One explorer of hypnagogic states was the Russian philosopher PD Ouspensky. In 1905 he began to study lucid dreaming, the practise of being aware that you are dreaming and being able to consciously manipulate the dream. In his studies, he realised that the best way to enter into a lucid dream was to remain aware as he drifted off to sleep. His attempts at doing this led to what he described as a “half-dream” state. In his essay On the Study of Dreams, he described his half-dream states as filling him with “astonishment” and “extraordinary joy” because he was able to see the progression from a simple change in consciousness to a full-fledged dream. He was able to observe how dreams were created.

Ouspensky felt like watching an artist at work in these states, who was able to take the slightest bit of material and create a real adventure from it. As he describes one experience: I am asleep. Golden dots, sparks and tiny stars appear and disappear before my eyes. These sparks and stars gradually merge into a golden net with diagonal meshes which moves slowly and regularly in rhythm with the beating of my heart... The next moment the golden net is transformed into rows of brass helmets belonging to Roman soldiers marching along the street below. I... watch them from the window of a high house in... Constantinople... I see the sun shining on their helmets. Then suddenly I detach myself from the window-sill and... fly slowly over the houses, and then over the Golden Horn in the direction of Stamboul. I smell the sea, feel the wind, the warm sun...”

In 1987, the psychologist Andreas Mavromatis published his book, Hypnagogia, in which he lays out in detail his studies on hypnagogia. He found that he could influence the content of someone else's hypnagogia by changing sensory input, such as sound, light and smell. The thought processes of someone in a hypnagogic state could also be changed through verbal suggestion, by speaking to the person while they were having this half-dream experience. Mavromatis believes that hypnagogia takes place in the subcortical structures in the brain, what is commonly referred to as the 'old brain'. The neocortex which is more evolutionary recent and more 'human', is associated with logical thinking. Mavromatis thinks that during hypnagogia activity in the neocortex is inhibited, whereas the 'older brain' carries on running. The subcortical structures deal with forms of thought involving imagery, symbols and analogy. 


  1. Loved your blog post on hypnagogia, Sam! Keep on posting. Thank you.
    Lee Bice-Matheson

  2. Very interesting article! I already knew some things about hypnagogia (hence, why I named my blog "Hynagogia") but there were some new things I learned, such as the scientists that have used this state to make discoveries. I also enjoyed reading your own accounts of hypnagogia. I also experience it. Usually, I see bugs (giant millipedes crawling across my ceiling) or animals (iguanas on my bed) or, when I was younger, people (I would see shadow people floating towards my bed). Personally, I haven't found any creative uses for my hypnagogic visions, but I wish I could. Nice blog!

    1. Hi? Did you ever figure out what it meant. Some people experience snakes on the ceiling. Thank you

  3. hypnagogia rocks!

    One year ago I closed my eyes and I could literally find myself in a beach in Polinesia, with crystal-clear water, plants, white sand and a blue sky. The other day I remember that I closed my eyes and could see the exact place where I was, touch my backpack (I was sleeping in a hostel) and see everything while being aware that my eyes were closed and it was all an illusion.

  4. hi i know this post is from a long time im wonderimg if someone can help me, you see im half awake and im just about to close my eyes, thogh it happened 3times for about 2mos? i saw a whirling circle, like water floating in my eye, and sometimes a dark hole and when i look through it i saw a house on a old city with old lanterns on the sidewlk, its colorful and vivid i can pan the area and see it in thirdperson like view. second view is the actual old house with a strange book i cant decipher but with strange animal like letters i tried to opem it but i cant memorize the text, if i do that the vision fades. third is a rich kitchen,i can see utensils pots refrigetator and when i reach out my jand i see my hand but it gets faded until i cant see it. its like a real life place but i dont remember going there or idont kmow what it means . if anyone kmows it i woild like to know send me an email renjiro16@gmail.com lets talk there.thanks

    1. Thanks for your comment. That sounds like a very interesting experience. I don't know if I can personally interpret it, but perhaps you could look into the psychology of dreams. The ideas of Freud and Jung may help in this respect. Thank you for reading :)


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I'm a freelance writer who is interested in a variety of subjects, especially those which are philosophical, complex and involve a multitude of perspectives. I created this blog in order to share my thoughts, and to encourage debate and discussion about the most fascinating topics I can think of. Get in touch: samwoolfe@gmail.com