Pessimism and Pandeism: Philipp Mainländer on the Death of God

Philipp Mainländer (1841 – 1876) was a German poet and philosopher, born in Offenbach am Main. He was a disciple of Arthur Schopenhauer’s philosophy and one of the patron saints of 19th century German pessimism (other notable figures belonging to this curious philosophical trend include Eduard von Hartmann and Julius Bahnsen). Unlike these other pessimists,…View Post

Pantheism: Nature is God

Pantheism is the belief that nature or the universe is identical to God. Unlike theists, pantheists do not believe in a personal god who interacts with people, performs miracles, listens to prayers or judges what we do as being morally right or wrong. Unlike atheists, pantheists do believe in some sort of god. Some people…View Post

Sufism: Islamic Mysticism

Sufism is the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. Its focus tends to be on the mystical, first-hand, direct experience of God called dhawq or “tasting”, rather than on doctrine or authority. Sufism began as an ascetic discipline. An ascetic person is characterised by their rigorous self-discipline and self-control; they will abstain from all forms of indulgence – money,…View Post