Hypnagogia: The Experience of Being Half-Awake and Half-Asleep

Hypnagogia is the experience you have when you are falling asleep (but not quite asleep). When you’re waking up (but not quite awake) this is known as hypnapompia. Other terms for hypnagogia include: ‘visions of half-sleep’, ‘the borderland of sleep’, ‘half-dream state’ and ‘dreamlets’. The hypnagogic state can be characterised by many sensory experiences. These experiences can range from the subtle and vague, to the downright intense and hallucinatory. It can include visions: seeing colours, shapes, faces, landscapes and other three-dimensional imagery. Unlike dreams, however, these sights have no narrative to them; that is, they do not tell a meaningful story. I experience this all the time and it usually consists of interacting with people, but with no context to it. Sometimes, the visual experience can be nightmarish, but because I am not yet fully asleep, I can ‘snap out of it’ and wrest myself back to wakefulness.

People who are involved in some activity before they fall asleep report experiencing this activity in the hypnagogic state. It is most common among people who engage in a repetitive activity before going to bed later that night. For example, people who play a lot of video games, new waiters and waitresses, chess players, telemarketers, and those who spend all day doing a particular activity (e.g. rock climbing, skiing, swimming) may experience this phenomenon. In many instances, there can be tactile hallucinations, where the person feels a part of the experience they were involved with in the day – e.g. the rock climber can feel the rockface, the person skiing can feel the snow, and the swimmer can feel the water. I have experienced this myself. One night after spending hours of telemarketing, I went to sleep, and although I wasn’t fully asleep it felt like I was back at work, taking countless calls. Definitely not an enjoyable experience!

Another aspect of the hypnagogic state is hearing sounds. Just like the visual aspect, the auditory aspect can range from slight sounds to realistic, loud noises. Common sounds heard are one’s name being called out and a loud noise or bang going off in one’s head. I’ve experienced both and it can be pretty scary. Jolted, I immediately wake up. The loud noise in one’s head has been compared to an explosion, roar, gunshot, door slamming, and loud voices or screams. The worst is when it’s a scream since it not only shocks you, but it’s especially weird to have someone else’s voice in your head. This aspect of the hypnagogic state has been called ‘exploding head syndrome’ and it can be accompanied by anxiety and an elevated heart rate. The cause of it is unknown, but some doctors say it can be associated with fatigue and stress. In the past, I have had repeated cases of it, which even made me fearful of going to sleep.

Our thought processes can also be affected. Thought processes at the edge of sleep are completely different from the thought processes we have when we are fully awake. Hypnagogic thinking is said to be characterised by more openness, illogic, nonsense, heightened suggestibility (readiness to believe something), and a more fluid association of ideas (connecting ideas in a more free-flow and unique way). Personally, I usually experience this when I’ve been falling asleep watching a documentary or when I’ve been writing or reading about a difficult subject before going to sleep. In the hypnagogic state, I am either writing about the subject or thinking about it in a radically different way. During the experience, it seems as if I am making genuine progress with a problem, without being able to arrive at a solution. It’s like wrestling with hundreds of ideas and being stuck in a kind of loop at the same time.

However, many famous people have been able to use the hypnagogic state in order to solve a problem. The scientist August Kekule, for example, realised that the structure of benzene was a closed ring while half asleep after seeing molecules turning into snakes, with one snake putting its tail in its mouth. Many other famous people have said that hypnagogia was able to enhance their creativity, including Beethoven, Wagner, Dali, William Blake, Carl Jung, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Edison, Tesla, Newton, and many more.

References to hypnagogia go as far back as Aristotle, who spoke of the “affections we experience when sinking into slumber”. In the third century AD, the philosopher Iamblichus wrote about “voices” and “bright and tranquil light” that came to him in the “condition between sleeping and waking”. He thought that these experiences were religious in nature and influenced by God. In 1600, the astrologer Simon Forman recounted apocalyptic visions of “mountains and hills” which came rolling towards him at the point of sleep. And Edgar Allan Poe wrote about the “fancies” that he experienced “only when I am on the brink of sleep…”

Some believe that hypnagogic states, much like dreams, are not just full of meaningless junk and random images and noises. Instead, hypnagogia can be imbued with structure and meaning, and therefore be interpreted in a way to gain an understanding of the unconscious mind. One explorer of hypnagogic states was the Russian philosopher P.D. Ouspensky. In 1905, he began to study lucid dreaming, the practice of being aware that you are dreaming and being able to consciously manipulate the dream. In his studies, he realised that the best way to enter into a lucid dream was to remain aware as he drifted off to sleep. His attempts at doing this led to what he described as a “half-dream” state. In his essay On the Study of Dreams, he described his half-dream states as filling him with “astonishment” and “extraordinary joy” because he was able to see the progression from a simple change in consciousness to a fully-fledged dream. He was able to observe how dreams were created.

Ouspensky felt like watching an artist at work in these states, who was able to take the slightest bit of material and create a real adventure from it. As he describes one experience:

I am asleep. Golden dots, sparks and tiny stars appear and disappear before my eyes. These sparks and stars gradually merge into a golden net with diagonal meshes which moves slowly and regularly in rhythm with the beating of my heart… The next moment the golden net is transformed into rows of brass helmets belonging to Roman soldiers marching along the street below. I… watch them from the window of a high house in… Constantinople… I see the sun shining on their helmets. Then suddenly I detach myself from the window-sill and… fly slowly over the houses, and then over the Golden Horn in the direction of Stamboul. I smell the sea, feel the wind, the warm sun…

In 1987, the psychologist Andreas Mavromatis published his book, Hypnagogia, in which he details his studies on hypnagogia. He found that he could influence the content of someone else’s hypnagogia by changing sensory input, such as sound, light and smell. The thought processes of someone in a hypnagogic state could also be changed through verbal suggestion, by speaking to the person while they were having this half-dream experience. Mavromatis believes that hypnagogia takes place in the subcortical structures in the brain, what is commonly referred to as the ‘old brain’. The neocortex which is more evolutionary recent and more ‘human’, is associated with logical thinking. Mavromatis thinks that during hypnagogia activity in the neocortex is inhibited, whereas the ‘older brain’ carries on running. This is where you can find the subcortical structures that deal with forms of thought involving imagery, symbols and analogy.


  1. LAM
    February 28, 2014 / 1:43 pm

    Loved your blog post on hypnagogia, Sam! Keep on posting. Thank you.
    Lee Bice-Matheson

    • Craig
      April 26, 2022 / 5:44 pm

      My brother goes trough this, but when he wakes up he forgets it all

  2. David Weston
    April 8, 2014 / 3:09 am

    Very interesting article! I already knew some things about hypnagogia (hence, why I named my blog "Hynagogia") but there were some new things I learned, such as the scientists that have used this state to make discoveries. I also enjoyed reading your own accounts of hypnagogia. I also experience it. Usually, I see bugs (giant millipedes crawling across my ceiling) or animals (iguanas on my bed) or, when I was younger, people (I would see shadow people floating towards my bed). Personally, I haven't found any creative uses for my hypnagogic visions, but I wish I could. Nice blog!

    • Unknown
      December 26, 2016 / 2:48 am

      Hi? Did you ever figure out what it meant. Some people experience snakes on the ceiling. Thank you

  3. Anonymous
    September 2, 2014 / 12:16 pm

    hypnagogia rocks!

    One year ago I closed my eyes and I could literally find myself in a beach in Polinesia, with crystal-clear water, plants, white sand and a blue sky. The other day I remember that I closed my eyes and could see the exact place where I was, touch my backpack (I was sleeping in a hostel) and see everything while being aware that my eyes were closed and it was all an illusion.

  4. Unknown
    October 18, 2017 / 1:11 am

    hi i know this post is from a long time im wonderimg if someone can help me, you see im half awake and im just about to close my eyes, thogh it happened 3times for about 2mos? i saw a whirling circle, like water floating in my eye, and sometimes a dark hole and when i look through it i saw a house on a old city with old lanterns on the sidewlk, its colorful and vivid i can pan the area and see it in thirdperson like view. second view is the actual old house with a strange book i cant decipher but with strange animal like letters i tried to opem it but i cant memorize the text, if i do that the vision fades. third is a rich kitchen,i can see utensils pots refrigetator and when i reach out my jand i see my hand but it gets faded until i cant see it. its like a real life place but i dont remember going there or idont kmow what it means . if anyone kmows it i woild like to know send me an email renjiro16@gmail.com lets talk there.thanks

    • Sam Woolfe
      October 23, 2017 / 8:52 am

      Thanks for your comment. That sounds like a very interesting experience. I don't know if I can personally interpret it, but perhaps you could look into the psychology of dreams. The ideas of Freud and Jung may help in this respect. Thank you for reading 🙂

    • Boston
      January 16, 2018 / 12:58 am

      Hi ,

      your not alone .. ive also experienced the exact same water-like whirling circle ! how is it possible you or I could see the exact same thing ?

    May 29, 2018 / 6:33 pm

    Hi there..i also experience this..i often had a weird visions of how something is done and where someone is without knowing who that person is..or what that something related to..i also know that i have the ability to control my dreams..im insomniac for the past 20 years now..is that related to my experience of being hypnagogia? I think mine is worsen when im exhausted all day..

  6. David Suydam
    January 7, 2021 / 8:45 pm

    I don’t know if I have that same problem or not because I just went to take a nap today and felt something extremely strange. When I fell half asleep and woke up I could feel the two different parts of my brain the back part of my brain which had the sleeping chemical that knocks you out and front part which was still wide awake. I’m guessing I should see a doctor cause this has been going on for nearly 2 weeks. But this has been a time where I actually completely felt the difference.

  7. Don
    May 8, 2021 / 1:05 pm

    I met someone recently that I had a relationship with many years ago, we hit it off straight away. Problem is I am half awake all night and I seem to be having a conversation with this person in my mind. No words are spoken. It’s all in my mind. At first it was all negative towards that person and trying to find fault but now it’s all positive. We talk on the phone each night.
    I feel tired and fatigued during the day. What do I need to do to gain a good nights sleep?
    Thank you.

  8. empleat
    August 23, 2021 / 9:09 pm

    LMAO I have exactly this, because I have chronic pain and I can’t do anything whole day, so I just listen to music before sleep which is called “ear worms” and is not healthy! And engage in repetitive behavior during day. This happens to me from time to time, before I fall asleep, or after I wake up too soon! I Am literally thinking half awake and half asleep and can’t control it. It is more like thinking, than dreaming and I say to myself scrappy sentences, which don’t make sense. I dream about bad logic LOL and it is annoying fuck out of me and it is rather painful! Fuck I need to get my sleep schedule right and get out of this loop, so annoying! Weird today I was in state of hypnagogia 8 hours – didn’t sleep and I actually feel better than usual: less pain and even slightly sharper mentally. Weird AF! But whole experience was unpleasant! Also when I sleep 6 hours, I feel better than 8 – I think. Polyphasic sleep not good BTW, never tried it, but it is not for everyone! Study says it is worse: https://bigthink.com/mind-brain/naps-don-t-deprivation It can work maybe for some rare small portion of population, which have genes for it, but generally it doesn’t work! Even Elon Musk sleeps 6 hours and Einstein 8 consecutively. Also humans maybe able to enter hibernation, when traveling large distances. I should have born 100 years from now, I would just skip time, if I was bored… So dumb life, why I can’t just skip time in this game, this shit needs patch!

  9. Summer Hansley
    April 8, 2024 / 10:32 am

    I have very weird dreams, and I noticed that I would have them right as I feel asleep and as I woke up. I watch a lot of TV and read a lot of books. Sometimes, this affects my dreams. For example, I had a dream where I broke into a prison, in the middle of the desert, with just a bow an arrow. I looked like a cross between Katnis Everdeen and Oliver Queen costume wise. The bit that I remember most, but is the hardest to describe, was the Tumble weeds. I could literally here the sound of the wind pushing them. Another dream I had was set, in what I could only describes as, a fantasy Kingdom. Liked the one from Rapunzel, but it was slowly sinking underwater. I was running from these guards and sought help from this guy who was a Martial Art instructor. I don’t really remember it, but it was a lot of fun. I had another dream, that was influenced by Beetle Juice. I was on a school field trip, in the dream. The first part was very emotional, I was crying that I didn’t have any clothes to wear and was a complete mess. Then during some event on the school trip, there was this huge worm, and my classmates and I defeated the worm with help of a dog in a when chair. Some of my dreams aren’t as pleasant or fun but they are still just as crazy an weird. I wonder if I am really getting any quality sleep sometimes.

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